Donald Rapp - Personal Website
I have 58 years of post-doctoral experience. I am a true generalist. I am 50% scientist and 50% engineer. I have worked on an extremely wide variety of technical problems over the years and I have broad knowledge of things technical. I have a solid grounding in chemistry and physics and did fundamental work in these sciences for many years. In the second half of my career I worked on more applied problems, particularly in space technology and space mission design. I am an expert in requirements, architectures and transportation systems for space missions, with particular emphasis on impact of in situ resource utilization, and water resources. I have surveyed the wide field of global climate change and ice ages and I am familiar with the entire literature of climatology. I am known far and wide in the NASA community as for my abilities to plan, organize and lead studies of broad technical systems. My services have been often sought in writing and reviewing major proposals for space ventures. I have written and published 8 books.
B.S. Chemical Engineering, Cooper Union, 1955
M.S. Chemical Engineering, Princeton, 1956
Graduate study, California Institute of Technology, 1957
Ph.D. Chemical Physics, University of California (Berkeley) - January, 1960
2015, co-I on Asteroid study for NIAC
2014-2020 (and beyond), Co-I on“MOXIE” NASA ISRU demonstration for 2020 Mars payload - consultant to MIT and JPL
2013, JPL Interim Employee to write MOXIE proposal
2010-2013, authored major works on climate change and missions to Mars
2008-2009 Research Professor, Viterbi School of Engineering, University of Southern California
2003-2009, JPL Consultant
1979-2002, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA; Senior Research Scientist and Division Chief Technologist, Mechanical Systems Engineering and Research Division; Retired February, 2002
1969-1981, University of Texas at Dallas:
1965-1969, Polytechnic Institute of New York: Associate Professor of Chemistry
|In-depth summary of a lifetime of work can be seen here.
Some brief highlights of previous work:
by Donald Rapp 1971
Hardcover, 672 pages, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, ISBN 0030812941 (0-03-081294-1)
out of print; Reissued as paperback in 2013 at amazon.com
by Donald Rapp 1972
Hardcover, 330 pages, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, ISBN 0030856531 (0-03-085653-1) out of print;
Reissued as paperback in 2012 at amazon.com
|Statistical Mechanics - Reissue 2012 at amazon.com
Publication Date: March 22, 2012
by Donald Rapp 1981
Hardcover, 516 pages, Prentice-Hall, ISBN 0138222134 (0-13-822213-4)
out of print
by Donald Rapp, hardback, 2nd edition
# Series: Springer Praxis Books
A human mission to Mars would be the pinnacle of Solar System exploration, representing not only an inspiring engineering achievement, but also the creation of a new era of expansion of humanity into space. Although NASA and others have developed scenarios for how such a mission might be carried out, many of the assumptions were optimistic and many details were left out. Because once embarked to Mars, there is no return to Earth for about 2.7 years, every system must be exquisitely reliable.
This book takes a critical view of the requirements for human missions to Mars from an engineering perspective. It discusses in detail all the technologies that need to be developed and demonstrated and examines the full range of elements critical to such missions, including recycling of life support consumables, radiation effects and shielding, aero-assisted orbit insertion and entry descent and landing amongst much else. The initial mass in low Earth orbit is used as a guide for Mission feasibility.
Lavishly illustrated, Human Missions to Mars is a highly readable yet realistic view of the possible future of the exploration of the Red Planet. For the first time it brings together a wide range of material currently fragmented in the literature, and presents a cogent argument against the overly-optimistic forecasts promulgated by NASA, the Mars Society and others. At the same time, it presents a plan to establish the technical basis for a credible human mission to Mars.
Series: Springer Praxis Books Environmental Sciences
by Donald Rapp, hardback, 3rd edition
# Series: Springer Praxis Books
In ASSESSING CLIMATE CHANGE Donald Rapp has investigated a large body of scientific data relevant to climate change, approaching each element with necessary (but neutral) scientific skepticism. The chapters of the book attempt to answer a number of essential questions in relation to global warming and climate change. He begins by showing how the earth’s climate has varied in the past, discussing ice ages, the Holocene period since the end of the last ice age, particularly during the past 1000 years. He investigates the reliability of "proxies" for historical temperatures and assesses the hockey stick version of global temperatures for the past millennium. To do this effectively he looks carefully at how well near surface temperatures of land and ocean on earth have been monitored during the past 100 years or more, and looks at the utility and significance of a single global average temperature.
Topics such as the variability of the Sun and the Earth’s heat balance are discussed in considerable detail. The author also investigates how the current global warming trend compares with past fluctuations in earth’s climate and what is the likelihood that the warming trend we are experiencing now is primarily just another in a series of natural climate fluctuations as opposed to a direct result of human activities. A key factor in understanding what may happen in the future is to examine the credibility of the global climate models which claim that greenhouse gasses produce most of the temperature rise of the 20th Century, and forecast much greater impacts in the century ahead.
Finally, the book considers future global energy requirements, fossil fuel usage and carbon dioxide production, public policy relating to global warming, and agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol.
|Bubbles, Booms and Busts - The Rise and Fall of Financial Markets
by Donald Rapp, second edition
# Paperback: 351 pages
This book builds upon previous discussions of booms and busts, particularly those of John Kenneth Galbraith. The first part of the book describes that stages of buildup and collapse of financial manias in terms of human element. These are divided into speculations, bootstraps and swindles. Discussions are provided on the distribution of wealth in the US, the nature of inflation, the role of the Federal Reserve in promoting bubbles, tax history and policies, debt (federal, state, municipal and personal), banks and banking, pension plans, and valuation of common stock.
The book then goes on to describe specific boom/bubble/bust cycles with many examples including the Florida land boom of the 1920s, the bull market of the late 1920s, the depression of the 1930s, the savings and loan scandals of the 1980s, the great bull stock market of 1982 to 1995, the crash of 1987, the dot.com mania, the sub-prime fiasco of 2002-2007, and a number of other bubbles and swindles.
|Ice Ages and Interglacials
by Donald Rapp, second edition (3rd edition in press late 2018)
# Series: Springer Praxis Books
This book studies the history and gives an analysis of extreme climate change on Earth. In order to provide a long-term perspective, the first chapter briefly reviews some of the wild gyrations that occurred in the Earth’s climate hundreds of millions of years ago: snowball Earth and hothouse Earth. Coming closer to modern times, the effects of continental drift, particularly the closing of the Isthmus of Panama are believed to have contributed to the advent of ice ages in the past three million years. This first chapter sets the stage for a discussion of ice ages in the geological recent past (i.e. within the last three million years, with an emphasis on the last few hundred thousand years).
The second edition of this book has been completely updated. It studies the history and gives an analysis of extreme climate change on Earth. In order to provide a long-term perspective, the first chapter briefly reviews some of the wild gyrations that occurred in the Earth's climate hundreds of millions of years ago: snowball Earth and hothouse Earth. Coming closer to modern times, the effects of continental drift, particularly the closing of the Isthmus of Panama are believed to have contributed to the advent of ice ages in the past three million years. This first chapter sets the stage for a discussion of ices ages in the geological recent past (i.e. within the last three million years, with an emphasis on the last few hundred thousand years).
|The Climate Debate
Most published books are one-sided in the climate debate between alarmists and skeptics. My book on the climate debate presents both sides of the debate with considerable technical detail and weighs the supporting evidence. It is found that in general, the data in climatology are very sparse and noisy. Yet climatologists seem willing to draw a dollar’s worth of conclusions from a penny’s worth of data. The sad truth is that we don’t really have good answers to the questions raised in the climate debate. My book shows why this is so. This new edition includes hundreds of references not included in the original version, and the book is expanded by more than 100 pages.
|Use of Extraterrestrial Resources for Human Space Missions to Moon or Mars (Springer Praxis Books / Astronautical Engineering) [Hardcover] second edition, 2018
This book carries out approximate estimates of the costs of implementing ISRU on the Moon and Mars. It is found that no ISRU process on the Moon has much merit. ISRU on Mars can save a great deal of mass, but there is a significant cost in prospecting for resources and validating ISRU concepts. Mars ISRU might have merit, but not enough data are available to be certain. In addition, this book provides a detailed review of various ISRU technologies. This includes three approaches for Mars ISRU based on processing only the atmosphere: solid oxide electrolysis, reverse water gas shift reaction (RWGS), and absorbing water vapor directly from the atmosphere. It is not clear that any of these technologies are viable although the RWGS seems to have the best chance. An approach for combining hydrogen with the atmospheric resource is chemically very viable, but hydrogen is needed on Mars. This can be approached by bringing hydrogen from Earth or obtaining water from near-surface water deposits in the soil. Bringing hydrogen from Earth is problematic, so mining the regolith to obtain water seems to be the only way to go. This will require a sizable campaign to locate and validate useable water resources. Technologies for lunar ISRU are also reviewed, even though none of them provide significant benefits to near-term lunar missions. These include oxygen from lunar regolith, solar wind volatiles from regolith, and extraction of polar ice from permanently shaded craters. The second edition provides new information on apropellant requirements for scent from Mars, which is a critical factor in Mars ISRU. It aso provides new information on crew size for human missions to Mars, which also affects ISRU requirements.
|"In Situ Resource Utilization on Mars and Moon," chapter in book: Prospective Energy and Material Resources
Editor: Viorel Badescu, Springer-verlag, 2009.
|"Ice Ages and Interglacials" chapter in Enyclopedia of Snow, Ice and Glaciers, Springer Verlag 2011|
|Research Gate Statistics, April 2018
92.5 percentile of Research Gate members
LIST OF PUBLICATIONS
2. "A Complete Classical Theory of Vibrational Energy Exchange," J. Chem. Phys., 32, 735, 1960.
3. "The Nitric Oxide-Fluorine Dilute Diffusion Flame," with H. S. Johnston, J. Chem. Phys., 33, 695, 1960. link
4. "Large Tunneling Corrections in Chemical Reaction Rates," with H. S. Johnston, J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 83, 1, 1961. link
5. "Comment on the Calculation of Rate Constants from Transition State Theory," with R. E. Weston, Jr., J. Chem. Phys., 35, 2907, 1962. link
6. "Vibrational Energy Exchange in Molecular Collisions Involving Large Transition Probabilities," with T. E. Sharp, J. Chem. Phys., 38, 2641, 1963. link
7. "Vibrational-Vibrational Energy Transfer in Resonant and Near Resonant Molecular Collision," with P. E. Golden, J. Chem. Phys., 40, 537, 1964. link
8A. "Interchange of Vibrational Energy between Molecules in Collisions," J Chem. Phys. 43, 316 (1965).
9. "Effects of Approximations on Calculated Excitation Probabilities in Molecular Collisions," with T. E. Sharp, J. Chem. Phys., 43, 1233, 1965. link
10. "Vibrational-Vibrational Translational Energy Transfer Between Two Diatomic Molecules," with A. Zelechow and T. Sharp, J. Chem. Phys., 49, 286, 1968. link
12. "Collinear Collisions of an Atom and Harmonic Oscillator," with F. E. Heidrick and K. R. Wilson, J. Chem. Phys., 54, 3885, 1971. link
13. "Effects of an Attractive Potential on the Classical Theory of Vibrational Energy Exchange," with R. E. Turner, J. Chem. Phys., 35, 1076, 1961. link
14. "Exact Quantum Mechanical Calculation of Energy Transfer," with T. Kassal, J. Chem. Phys., 48, 5287, 1968. link
15. "Interchange of Charge Between Gaseous Molecules," with I. B. Ortenburger, J. Chem. Phys., 33, 1230, 1960. link
16. "Ion-Molecule Reactions in the Helium-Hydrogen Systems," with three co-workers, J. Chem. Phys., 34, 343, 1961. link
18. "Accidentally Resonant Charge Transfer in the Protonosphere," J. Geophys. Res., 68, 1773, 1963. link
19. "On the Relation Between Symmetric and Asymmetric Charge Exchange," J. Chem. Phys., 53, 1333, 1970. link
20. "Simple Approximate Wave Functions for Alkali Atoms," with Jean Ward, J. Chem. Phys., 54, 2766, 1971. link
21. "Wave Functions and Pseudopotential for Alkali Charge Transfer," with C. Chang, J. Chem. Phys., 57, 2766, 1971. link
22. "Convergence of the Hydrogenic Expansion in H+, H. Scattering," with D. Dinwiddie, J. Chem. Phys., 57, 4278, 1972.
23. "One Electron Model for Charge Exchange in Ion-Atom Collisions," with D. Storm, J. Chem. Phys., 57, 4278, 1972. link
25. "Excitation and Electron Capture in Collisions of He++ with H, " J. Chem. Phys., 58, 2043, 1973. link
27. "Approximate Solution of the Schroedinger Equation by Minimizing the Deviation," with C. Chang, J. Chem. Phys., 59, 972, 1973. link
29. "The Impact Parameter Method for Proton-Hydrogen Atom Collisions. III. Use of Non-Hydrogenic Expansion Functions," with D. Storm, Phys. Rev., A8, 1784, 1973. link
30. "Electron Transfer and Excitation in Collisions of He++ with H, J. Chem. Phys., 61, 3777, 1974. link
31. "Variational Bounds on the 1s Charge Exchange Amplitude in Proton-Hydrogen Atom Scattering," with D. Storm, Phys. Re. Letters, 33, 137, 1974. http://prola.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v33/i3/p137_1
32. "Coupled State Calculations in H+, H Scattering," with D. Dinwiddie, D. Storm and T. E. Sharp, Phys. Rev., A5, 1290, 1972. link
33. "Ionization of the Hydrogen Molecule Near Threshold," with D. D. Briglia, Phys. Rev. Letters, 14, 245, 1965; and J. Chem. Phys., 42, 3201, 1965. http://prola.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v14/i8/p245_1
34. "Large Isotope Effect in Negative Ion Formation in H2, HD, and D2" with T. E. Sharp and D. D. Briglia, Phys. Rev. Letters, 14, 543,1965. paper
35. "Cross Sections for Dissociative Ionization of Gases by Electron Impact," with D. D. Briglia and P. E. Golden, J. Chem. Phys., 42, 4081, 1965. link
36. "Concerning the Possibility of Competition in Ionization of Molecules by Electron Impact," J. Chem. Phys., 55, 4154, 1971. link
37. "Total Cross Sections for Ionization of Gases by Electron Impact," with P. E. Golden, J. Chem. Phys., 43, 1464, 1965.
39. "An Electron Cross Section Plotter," with D. D. Briglia, Revs. Sci. Insts., 36, 1259, 1965.
40. "On the Dipole Polarizabilities of Alkali Atoms," Indian Journal of Physics, 48, 901, 1974. paper
41. "Estimation of the Degree of Advancement of Petroleum Exploration in the United States," Energy Sources, 2, 125, 1975.
42. "A Critique of the Nationwide 55 M.P.H. Speed Limit," Energy Sources, 23, 377, 1976.3.
43. "The U.S. Energy Situation and Methanol as Fuel," 101 pages, "Proceedings of the 2nd Texas Symposium on Energy," June, 1982.
44. "ATU/Fort Hood Solar Total Energy Program - Final Report for April 1975 - September 1976," prepared by D. Rapp and co-workers for ERDA under Contract E-(40-1)-4924.
45. "I. Analysis of Insolation Patterns at Fort Worth, Texas," Energy Conversion, 16, 1, 1976.
46. "II. Prediction of Insolation at Fort Hood, Texas," Energy Conversion, 17, 31, 1977.
47. "III. The Relation Between Normal Incidence Solar Intensity, Total Insolation, and Weather at Fort Hood, Texas," Energy Conversion, 17, 163, 1977.
48. "IV. Construction of a Model Year Solar Intensity and Climate," Energy Conversion, 17, 173, 1977.
49. "V. Estimation of Availability of Solar Energy," Energy Conversion, 18, 31, 1978.
50. "On the Relation Between Global Insolation on Horizontal and Tilted Surfaces," with D. Oxley, Energy Conversion, 18, 39, 1978.
51. "Critique on the Solar Data Rehabilitation Procedures Used in Solmet II," Energy Conversion, 19, 101, 1979.
52. "Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Stratified Thermocline Storage of Hot Water," with M. Abdoly, Energy Conversion and Management, 22, 275, 1982.
53. "A Parallel Householder Tridiagonalization Stratagem Using Scattered Square Decomposition," with Y. Chang, S. Utku and M. Salama, Journal of Parallel Computing, 6, 297-312, 1988. link
54. "A Parallel Householder Tridiagonalization Stratagem Using Scattered Row Decomposition," with Y. Chang, S. Utku and M. Salama, published in International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 26, 857-874, 1988
55. "Active Structures for use in Precision Control of Large Optical Systems", with J. L. Fanson and E. H. Anderson, Optical Engineering, 29(11), 1320-1327 (1990).
56. Space Interferometry and Large Optics Program Prospectus, JPL Report D-6854, September, 1989.
57. "Direct Detection of Extra-Solar Planets", JPL Report D-6835, October, 1989.
58. "Direct and Indirect Detection of Extrasolar Planets and Brown Dwarfs", JPL Report, April, 1990.
59. "Binary Stars", JPL Report D-8028, January, 1991.
60. "Effect of Telescope Temperature and Surface Figure Accuracy on Performance of Conceptual IR and sub-mm Telescopes", JPL Report D-8175, January, 1991.
61. "Infrared Astronomy in the Post-SIRTF Era", JPL Report D-8482, May, 1991.
62. "Ecological Niches in IR and Sub-MM Astronomy: Sensitivity Comparisons for Proposed Future Observatories", with H. A. Thronson, B. Bailey and T. Hawarden, Publications of the Astronomical Soc. of the Pacific 107, 1099-1118, 1995. link
63. "The Edison Radiatively Cooled IR Space Observatory", with many co-authors, Proc. SPIE, Vol. 1945, 13-14 April, 1993; also: "The Edison IR Observatory and the Study of Extra-Solar Planetary Material", with H. A. Thronson, T. G. Hawarden and J. Bally, Astrophysics and Space Science 212: 423-431 (1994). link
64. "Sensor Cooling Handbook", JPL Report D-6483, June, 1989
65. "The Dimensional Stability of Materials", JPL Report D-7667, July, 1990
66. "Laminate Theory for Orthotropic Materials", JPL Report D-7747, August, 1990
67. "Laminates Used in the Hubble Space Telescope", JPL Report D-7781, September, 1990.
68. "Precision Composite Mirror Panel Development Task - Final report of Four Year Program", JPL Report D-9204, December 20, 1991.
68A. Donald Rapp, Charles E. Kohlhase, Jr., Brian K. Muirhead, Kenneth L. Atkins, Philip W. Garrison, William G. Breckenridge, Richard H. Stanton, and Lincoln J. Wood, "Astronautics," in Encyclopedia of Applied Physics, Vol. 2, (George L. Trigg, ed.), pp. 25-63, American Institute of Physics, VCH Publishers, New York, 1991. paper
69. "Potential for Active Structures Technology to Enable Lightweight Passively Cooled IR Telescopes", JPL Report D-9449, March, 1992.
70. "Electrostatic Propulsion Using C60 Molecules", with S. Leifer and W. Saunders, Journal of Power and Propulsion 8, 1297-1300 (1992). link
71. Effect of use of C-60 as a Propellant in Ion Thrusters, with S. Leifer, JPL Report D - 10169, October, 1992
72. "Thermal Control", JPL Report D - 9959, July 29, 1992.
73. "Dimensional Stability of Materials", NASA Tech Brief NPO-18984, Sept. 9, 1993.
74. "The Suess-Urey Mission (Return of Solar Matter to Earth)," with several co-authors, IAA Paper IAA-L0705, 2nd IAA Intl. Conf. on Low Cost Planetary Missions, Johns Hopkins Univ., Maryland, April, 1996. link
75. "Prospects and Limitations of Technical Approaches for Ultra Lightweight Space Telescopes," JPL Report D-13975, Sept. 30, 1996.
76. Genesis Space Mission Proposal to NASA Discovery Program, 1997 (funded at $220M).
77. "OMEGA" MIDEX Proposal, August, 1998.
78. Deep Impact Space Mission proposal to NASA Discovery Program, 1999 (funded at $340M).
79. KittyHawk Space Mission proposal to NASA Discovery Program, 2001.
80. "Adsorption Pump for Acquisition and Compression of Atmospheric CO2 on Mars," with 3 other authors, AIAA 97-2763, 1997.
81. "A Review of Mars ISPP Technology," JPL Report D-15223, 1997-8.
82. "NASA Technology Blueprint," JPL Publication 03-003, February, 2003.
83. "Solar Power on Mars," with other authors, 10-31-2001.
84. "Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems Report," with other authors, March, 2001.
85. "Solar Cell and Array Technology for Future Missions," with other authors, December, 2003.
86. "Mars Ground Penetrating Radar Proposal to Mars Science Laboratory", July, 2004.
87. "Assessment of Energy Storage Technology to Enable Future Space Science Missions," with other authors, August, 2004.
88. "Preliminary System Analysis of Mars ISRU Alternatives," with other authors, JPL Report D-31341, November, 2004.
89. "Solar Energy on Mars, Volume 1. Basics," JPL Report D-31341-1, November, 2004.
90. "Solar Energy on Mars, Volume 2, Calculations of Solar Energy on Mars," JPL Report D-31342-2, November, 2004.
91. "Accessible Water on Mars," JPL Report D-31343, December, 2004; Revision 5, June 2005, presented at ISDC National meeting.
91A. "Sublimation Extraction of Mars H2O for Future In-Situ Resource Utilization," Greg S. Mungas, Donald Rapp, Robert W. Easter, Kenneth R. Johnson, and Thomas Wilson, ASCE Conference on Earth and Space 2006: Engineering, Construction, and Operations in Challenging Environment, 2005.
92. "Design Reference Missions for Human Exploration of Mars," with J. Andringa, JPL Report D-31340, January, 2005.
93. "Getting To And From The Moon, Mars And Other Bodies," JPL Report, August, 2005.
94. "Solar Energy on the Moon," informal JPL report, 2005.
95. "Transporting Hydrogen to Mars," informal JPL report, 2005.
96. "Fueling Around in Space," informal JPL report, 2006.
97. Rocket Science in a Nutshell," (with M. Adler) informal JPL report, 2006.
98. "Initial Mass in low Earth orbit," informal JPL report, 2006.
99. "Lunar In Situ Resource Utilization," informal JPL report, 2006.
100. "Mars Life Support Systems," The Mars Journal, Mars 2, 72-82, 2006; doi:10.1555/mars.2006.0005 http://marsjournal.org/contents/2006/0005/files/rapp_mars_2006_0005.pdf
101. "Radiation Effects and Shielding Requirements in Human Missions to the Moon and Mars," The Mars Journal, Mars 2, 46-71, 2006; doi:10.1555/mars.2006.0004
102. "An Analytical Tool for Tracking and Visualizing the Transfer of Mass at each Stage of Complex Missions," Donald Rapp, David Y. Oh, Robert Easter, Casey Heeg, Erick Sturm, Thomas Wilson, and Ryan Woolley, Space 2006, 19 - 21 September 2006, San Jose, California, AIAA 2006-7254. link
103. Solar Power Beamed from Space," Astropolitics 5, 63-86 (2007). link
104. "Interfacial Chemistry and Energy at SLAC and Stanford University (ICESS) Center," Stanford University document, 2008.
105. "Advanced Energy Solutions," internal JPL document, with S. Surampudi, 2008.
106. "Oxyatmoversion of the terrestrial planets, Caltech-JPL document, 2008.
107. Adsorption pump for Acquisition and compression of CO2 on Mars" AIAA 97-2763. paper
• Elected Fellow of the American Physical Society, 1974
• Referee for the Journal of Chemical Physics, the Physical Review, the American Journal of Physics, the Journal of Physical Chemistry, and other journals on over 300 occasions.
• Received Exceptional Service Award from NASA October, 2002
• Associate Editor of the Mars Journal 2006 - present
• Particularly noteworthy: I wrote the “Deep Impact” and “Genesis” JPL mission proposals
Listed in Who's Who in the West
Listed in Who's Who in Frontiers of Science and Technology
Listed in Who's Who in America
Listed in Men of Achievement
Listed in International Who's Who of Contemporary Achievement
Listed in International Who's Who of Professionals
Listed in Personalities of the Americas
Listed in Who's Who in Technology Today
Listed in Who's Who in Technology
Listed in Who's Who in California
Listed in Who's Who of Professionals
Listed in Two Thousand Notable Americans
Listed in Dictionary of International Biography
Listed in Strathmore's Who's Who